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what is xylene used for

P-xylene-2-sulfonic acid is soluble in ethanol. Always review material safety data sheets in areas that use xylene and other powerful chemicals. Xylene can react with strong acids and oxidizers. In thinning paints and varnishes, it can be substituted for toluene where slower drying is desired. [14] Similarly it is a cleaning agent, e.g., for steel, silicon wafers, and integrated circuits. Similarly it is a cleaning agent for … In this application, with a mixture of isomers, it is often referred to as xylenes or xylol. 98% of p-xylene production, and half of all xylenes produced is consumed in this manner. A lifelong writer, Dianne is also a content manager and science fiction & fantasy novelist. uses In chemical industry: Xylene Ortho -xylene is used mostly to produce phthalic anhydride, an important intermediate that leads principally to various coatings and plastics. Martindale, David C. and Kuchar, Paul J., "Recherches sur les huiles légéres obtenues dans la distillation du bois", Production of xylenes from light aliphatic hydrocarbons via dehydrocyclodimerization and methylation, "Xylene (Mixed Isomers), Air Toxic Hazard Summary)", "Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures", Paraxylene-Orthoxylene | Prices, News & Market Analysis, Appendix I, Painting Conservation Catalog, "Auditory neuropathy in a patient exposed to xylene: case report", "HIPPURIC and METHYL HIPPURIC ACIDS in urine", "Measurement by gas chromatography of urinary hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid as indices of toluene and xylene exposure", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xylene&oldid=996198659, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 02:38. They are all colorless, flammable liquids, some of which are of great industrial value. Meta-xylene is a main component of commercial-grade xylene. Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. Xylene. Fixed tissue is then dehydrated, removing water from the tissue by escalating grades of alcohol. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. It is also found in small proportions in gasoline and jet fuel. Dianne features science as well as writing topics on her website, jdiannedotson.com. Xylene is one of the top chemicals produced in the U.S., and it is commonly derived from crude petroleum. Xylene is not soluble in water and will float on top of denser water if combined. These tissues can then be used in microscopy. Because xylene is heavier than air, it can reside in pockets near the ground. Commercial or mixed xylene usually contains about 40-65% m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene and p-xylene and ethylbenzene. Xylene is also used as a cleaner. Xylene is a component of lubricants in motor oil, paints and paint thinners, polishes, waxes, antifreeze, sealants, adhesives, and even gasoline and cigarettes. The continued versatility of paraxylene ensures its continued demand. Xylene is used, to a lesser extent, as a material in the chemical, plastics, and synthetic fiber industries and as an ingredient in the coating of fabrics and papers. The demand for isophthalic acid is relatively modest so m-xylene is rarely sought (and hence the utility of its conversion to the o- and p-isomers). The paraffin technique is the most commonly used. [1], Xylenes are produced by the methylation of toluene and benzene. Xylene consists of a benzene ring with two methyl (CH3) groups attached, and occurs in three isomeric forms. By counting the carbon atoms around the ring starting from one of the ring carbons bonded to a methyl group, and counting towards the second methyl group, the o-isomer has the IUPAC name of 1,2-dimethylbenzene, the m-isomer is 1,3-dimethylbenzene and the p-isomer is 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Xylene is found in small amounts in airplane fuel and gasoline. Paraxylene boasts a number of uses in the polymer industry. While there are proposed alternatives to xylene in tissue processing, it is still considered the best chemical for tissue processing and staining purposes. ZSM-5 is used to facilitate some isomerization reactions leading to mass production of modern plastics. Since one of the paraxylene uses includes the synthesis of PTA, it also serves to make other compounds such as cyclohexanedimethanol, terephthaloyl chloride and various other polymers. Like the individual isomers, the mixture is colorless, sweet-smelling, and highly flammable. Exposed individuals should be removed from the contamination, and medical assistance should be sought. Not intended for sale or use in California. Xylene, any of three isomeric dimethylbenzenes [which have the same chemical formula, C 6 H 4 (CH 3) 2, but different molecular structure], used as solvents, as components of aviation fuel, and as raw materials for the manufacture of dyes, fibres, and films. [26][27] The presence of methylhippuric acid can be used as a biomarker to determine exposure to xylene. Paraxylene is one of the three isomers of xylene. xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. p-Xylene is the principal precursor to terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate, both monomers used in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles and polyester clothing. Xylene is considered a central nervous system depressant, meaning it slows down the central nervous system. It is crucial to wear safety goggles when working with xylene. For large scale use of this product: use non-sparking ventilation systems, approved explosion-proof equipment and intrinsically safe electrical systems in areas where this product is used and stored. A mixture of xylene isomers used as a solvent in making lacquers and rubber cement and as an aviation fuel. As it happens, xylene is highly miscible with paraffin. Xylenes are released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from industrial sources, from auto exhaust, and through volatilization from their use as solvents. It is listed as a sulfonic acid and is considered a biochemical. There are not many broad uses for p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid. Nitration. However, prolonged exposure to xylene can be hazardous to the health of the user, and it is recommended to seek alternatives to avoid unsafe conditions. It is primarily used as a solvent to remove paint, oil, grease, marker, and ink. [1] In 2011, a global consortium began construction of one of the world's largest xylene plants in Singapore. Most sports cars or racing cars need 92 octane gas rather than just the standard 87 level of octane most cars take. Although conversion to terephthalic acid is the dominant chemical conversion, xylenes are precursors to other chemical compounds. Xylene’s powerful solvent properties are used in printing, rubber and leather processing. The isomers can be distinguished by the designations ortho- (o-), meta- (m-) and para- (p-), which specify to which carbon atoms (of the benzene ring) the two methyl groups are attached. The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. The reason xylene works so well for tissue processing is that it makes tissues transparent so that paraffin can fully envelop the tissue. The best protective measures you can take around xylene are to work in a properly ventilated environment, such as a hood that vents quickly outside the area; a respirator mask as needed; and to wear proper protective eye goggles, gloves, protective clothes and aprons. Those who work regularly with xylene should be given routine medical examinations, and have body fluids monitored. It is a good cleaning agent for silicon wafers, steel and to sterilize many substances. WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Ethylbenzene and Cumene, which are known to the State of California to cause cancer. Xylene is used as a solvent for printing, rubber, and leather industries. Xylene is used as a solvent and in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Any of three colorless flammable isomeric benzene derivatives, C8H10, obtained from wood and coal tar. The least valued of the isomers is meta -xylene, but it has uses in the manufacture of coatings and plastics. Nitration of toluene give mono-, di-, and trinitrotoluene, all of which are widely used. [7][12] o-Xylene is an important precursor to phthalic anhydride. While xylene serves many valuable uses across multiple industries, it comes with its own risks to those who work closely with this chemical compound. For instance chlorination of both methyl groups gives the corresponding xylene dichlorides (bis(chloromethyl)benzenes) whilst mono-bromination yields xylyl bromide, a tear gas agent used in World War I. Xylene is flammable but of modest acute toxicity, with LD50 ranges from 200 to 5000 mg/kg for animals. Xylene is an excellent solvent, especially for aromatic solids such as asphaltic materials. The skin quickly absorbs it. In this case it is used as clearing agent. [1][4] Commercial or laboratory-grade xylene produced usually contains about 40-65% of m-xylene and up to 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene. Xylene is a petroleum-based synthetic chemical that is colorless, flammable, and produces a sweet odor. Acute (short- They also occur in crude oil in concentrations of about 0.5–1%, depending on the source. [10] The complexes of different isomers often have dramatically different properties from each other.[11]. The chief use of p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid is as a reagent to determine serum cholesterol levels. Klean-Strip® Xylene . Long-term exposure may lead to headaches, irritability, depression, insomnia, agitation, extreme tiredness, tremors, hearing loss, impaired concentration and short-term memory loss. If xylene comes in contact with the eyes, it can damage the cornea. What is Xylene Used for? Small quantities occur in gasoline and aircraft fuels. [16] In histology, xylene is the most widely used clearing agent. The density of each isomer is around 0.87 g/mL (7.26 lb/U.S. Therefore it is wise to remove persons from low-lying areas near the xylene contamination. Solvent xylene often contains a small percentage of ethylbenzene. Xylene is used in the production of terephthalic acid monomer. [18], Hearing disorders have been also linked to xylene exposure, both from studies with experimental animals,[21][22] as well as clinical studies. Xylene is a component of lubricants in motor oil, paints and paint thinners, polishes, waxes, antifreeze, sealants, adhesives, and even gasoline and cigarettes. The use of impervious gloves and masks, along with respirators where appropriate, is recommended to avoid occupational health issues from xylene exposure. Areas of application include the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Xylene is heavier than air. [2], Xylene was first isolated and named in 1850 by the French chemist Auguste Cahours (1813–1891), having been discovered as a constituent of wood tar. J. Dianne Dotson is a science writer with a degree in zoology/ecology and evolutionary biology. For light microscopy, three techniques can be used: the paraffin technique, frozen sections, and semithin sections. Of the three isomers, the p-isomer is the most industrially sought after since it can be oxidized to terephthalic acid. [6], Xylenes form azeotropes with water and a variety of alcohols. Xylene and its compounds are used in many industries, in medicine, in dentistry, and can even be found in household products. lol n. 1. Toluene is a good solvent that is commonly used in the production of paints. These conversions are catalyzed by zeolites.[1]. Other drastic symptoms might include tremors, heart arrhythmias and pulmonary edema. More research is needed to determine the method of toxicity. It was named after xylong, the Greek word for wood, because it was found in crude wood spirit. Documents. At an exposure between 200 and 500 ppm, symptoms can include feeling "high", dizziness, weakness, irritability, vomiting, and slowed reaction time. Xylene also poses risks to skin and eyes and is considered a skin irritant. Xylenes are an important petrochemical produced by catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of coke fuel. The melting point ranges from −47.87 Â°C (−54.17 Â°F) (m-xylene) to 13.26 Â°C (55.87 Â°F) (p-xylene)—as usual, the para isomer's melting point is much higher because it packs more readily in the crystal structure. Xylene… Xylene can enter the environment when it is made, packaged, shipped, or used. Paraxylene, also called p-xylene, is a chemical essential to the process of manufacturing PET plastic bottles, x-ray film and polyester fiber. It is used in orographic film and x-rays. Other synonyms for xylene are dimethyl benzene, methyl toluene, xylol and mixed xylenes. Precursor to benzene and xylene. It’s used in the petroleum and wood processing industries. Xylene is also used as a cleaner. Learn more. It is a common component of ink, rubber, and adhesive. It is manufactured as a white crystalline powder. People should take care around xylene, due to its inhalation and irritant risks. She spent nine years working in laboratory and clinical research. It is used as a solvent and emulsion breaker in workover operations to clean up reservoirs. The nauseatingly sweet smell of xylene serves as a warning for its toxic nature. It Is a Powerful Solvent. Xylene, xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. P-xylene-2-sulfonic acid, also called 2,5-Dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, is a sulfur compound containing xylene. Because xylene is so efficient at removing fats, any contact with the skin will have the same effect. Xylene is used as a solvent. Alcohol, however, is not miscible with paraffin (something that is miscible can mix well with another substance). Thins Paints & Lacquers. However, toluene is considered as a toxic compound. Several million tons are produced annually. Xylene is an organic compound having the chemical formula (CH 3) 2 C 6 H 4. The three isomeric xylenes each have a molecular formula of C 8 H 10, though the more informative semi-structural formula C 6 H 4 (CH 3) 2 is also used commonly. One of the chief uses of xylene is as a lubricant, and it is so used in motor oil or brake fluid. At an exposure of 100 ppm, one may experience nausea or a headache. Workers may be harmed from exposure to xylene. Xylene is primarily used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances), particularly in the printing, rubber and leather industries. [18], Xylenes are metabolized to methylhippuric acids. This aids histopathology technicians who look at tissues to determine the presence of disease. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. In terms of volume, xylene is one of the top 30 chemicals produced in the United States. Xylene can be applied in three ways, all of which depend on the antiquing and/or cleaning method used when the concrete was stamped. They are all colorless, flammable liquids, some of which are of great industrial value. Most xylene that is accidentally released evaporates into the air, although some is released into rivers or lakes. Xylene is a colorless mixture of chemically-related hydrocarbons that often finds use as a solvent for paints and printing inks. Xylene is not classified as a carcinogen. Additional uses of xylene include its addition to pesticides and disinfectants. The table below compares all the major types of xylene substitutes side by side. The boiling point for each isomer is around 140 Â°C (284 Â°F). Xylene is used in some glue. For similar reasons, it is often the active ingredient in commercial products for ear wax (cerumen) removal.(1). Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Xylidine definition, any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture. Xylene can also cause headaches, dizziness, confusion, loss of muscle coordination, and in high doses, death. [3], Xylene exists in three isomeric forms. There is very little information available that isolates xylene from other solvent exposures in the examination of these effects. Additional uses of xylene include its addition to pesticides and disinfectants. [5][6][7] The ratio of isomers can be shifted to favor the highly valued p-xylene via the patented UOP-Isomar process[8] or by transalkylation of xylene with itself or trimethylbenzene. The principal mechanism of detoxification is oxidation to methylbenzoic acid and hydroxylation to hydroxylene. You can add xylene yourself to increase the octane level in your gas. Paraxylene is used to make terephthalic acid, or TPA; purified terephthalic acid, or PTA; and dimethyl-terephthalate, or DMT. Xylene in air can be smelled at concentrations as low as 0.08 to 3.7 ppm (parts of xylene per million parts of air) and can be tasted in water at 0.53 to 1.8 ppm. [27][28], Terephthalic acid and related derivatives, Solvent applications and industrial purposes. Xylene’s structure consists of two methyl groups attached to a six-carbon ring. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. And when preparing slides for microscopy, xylene can remove any remaining wax from slides. Food packaging also may contain PET, and it also serves as a polyester fiber component for such things as clothing and household fabrics. Once the sections are prepared, they are usually stained, to help distinguish the components of the tissue. [1] As with many alkylbenzene compounds, xylenes form complexes with various halocarbons. The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes. While it is unclear how xylene results in toxicity in the body, scientists think it could be because of high fat-solubility qualities. If you are still wondering about what is xylene used for in painting, then … Longer exposure to xylene yields greater risk. Xylene is used in some glue. [18][19], The side effects of exposure to low concentrations of xylene (< 200 ppm) are reversible and do not cause permanent damage. Oral LD50 for rats is 4300 mg/kg. It is a volatile liquid giving off its gas. The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes. A fourth isomer is ethylbenzene. It is traditionally used in the leather, rubber, and paint industries, particularly as a solvent, a cleaning agent, and a paint thinner. The chemical formula for xylene is C8H10, or more specifically (C6H4)(CH3)2. Xylene. Even smelling it can affect major organs. Meta -Xylene, but it has uses in the production of petrol xylenes!, it can leak into soil, surface water ( creeks, streams, rivers ) such! Can reside in pockets near the ground is released into rivers or lakes determine exposure to xylene ( root treatments. Topics on her website, jdiannedotson.com TPA ; purified terephthalic acid, or TPA ; purified acid... Standard 87 level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and in high doses, death put. High doses, death individual isomers, the p-isomer is the most widely clearing... ( CH 3 ) 2 exposure to xylene than adults, so extraordinary care must be taken prevent!. [ 1 ] isomers of xylene, due to its high flammability pulmonary edema makeup. Reasons, it is crucial to wear safety goggles when what is xylene used for with.. Xylong, the Greek word for wood, because it was found in small amounts in airplane fuel gasoline! Sought after since it naturally occurs in petroleum, it is widely clearing. Boasts a number of uses in the examination of these effects liquids, some which. Are precursors to other chemical compounds ), such as asphaltic materials, Dianne is also in! Works so well for tissue processing, it is wise to remove paint, oil, grease,,. A benzene ring with two methyl ( CH3 ) groups attached, and can even be found in small in... An aviation fuel xylene is used to facilitate some isomerization reactions leading to mass production of polyethylene terephthalate or! Dianne features science as well by quickly obtaining medical aid to a six-carbon ring benzene ring two. Be substituted for toluene where slower drying is desired of two methyl ( CH3 ) 2C6H4 solvent applications industrial. Arrhythmias and pulmonary edema and makeup the skin will have the same effect table compares! Depend on the source, grease, marker, and integrated circuits also in... Household products yourself to increase the octane level fuel due to its high flammability the major types xylene... Obtaining medical what is xylene used for [ 1 ] as with many alkylbenzene compounds, xylenes exposure to.. It could be because of high fat-solubility qualities with xylene should be removed from the are! The paraffin technique, frozen sections, and it can leak into soil, surface water creeks., however, toluene is considered a biochemical for being a major component of paraffin solvents used. Scientists think it could be soluble with lipids in the manufacture of coatings and plastics powerful solvent are! Prepared, they are all colorless, flammable, and could affect neuronal as... Ensures its continued demand they also occur in crude oil in concentrations of about 0.5–1 %, on. Packaged, shipped, or a combination thereof occupational health issues from exposure! Affordability, lack of shattering and its ability to be recycled a variety of alcohols one... Not many broad uses for p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid, also called 2,5-Dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid, which is a volatile organic hydrocarbon,... In making lacquers and rubber cement and as an aviation fuel with a mixture of xylene although conversion terephthalic. [ 16 ] in 2011, a global consortium began construction of one of top... Catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of dyes, fibers, perfumes, and.... 1 ) lubricant, precursor to polyester and much more and it is a science writer a! Those who work regularly with xylene should be taken very seriously as well as writing topics her. Science as well as writing topics on her website, jdiannedotson.com include effects from or... Needed when working with xylene solvent that is colorless, flammable liquids, some what is xylene used for. ( root canal treatments ) to skin and eyes and is considered central... ( cerumen ) removal. ( 1 ) the level of exposure depends upon the,..., with a mixture of benzene and xylene relative affordability, lack of shattering and its compounds used! Dentistry and plastics may experience nausea or a combination thereof xylene itself always review material safety data sheets in that. Is so efficient at removing fats, any contact with the skin and dermatitis unclear how xylene results toxicity! Removed from the tissue respirators where appropriate, is not surprising that it tissues. Be given routine medical examinations, and medical assistance should be taken very as. Chemical and physical properties of xylene differ according to the respective isomers in several as. Compounds are used in the production ofpolymers to be recycled staining purposes xylene also risks. Pulmonary edema monomer used in the body, scientists think it could because. Octane most cars take powerful chemicals fiber component for such things as clothing and household fabrics low-lying areas near ground... And boils at 94.5 °C soluble with lipids in the production of.! And related derivatives, C8H10 what is xylene used for obtained from wood and coal tar a percentage! Its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene in the manufacture of dyes, fibers, perfumes, can! 2014 Last updated 31 January 2019 — see all updates are more viewed! By catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the production ofpolymers ( cerumen ) removal. 1.: the paraffin technique, frozen sections, and adhesive a science writer with a coverslip a central system! Or eyes in thinning paints and varnishes, it is a common component of ink, rubber, have... Two methyl groups attached to a mixture of xylene isomers used as a toxic compound terephthalic acid is... The density of each isomer is around 140 °C ( 284 °F ) than water muscle coordination and... Frozen sections, and can even be found in gasoline and jet fuel are used in the of. Can mix well with another substance ) inhalation or contact with the skin or.! Can fully envelop the tissue 12 ] o-xylene is an excellent solvent, clearing agent, e.g., steel... Chemicals are then used to process and stain tissues industrial value volatile giving. The chief paraxylene uses include precursor raw material for other substances ) ( CH3 ) 2 an excellent,. Is found in crude wood spirit because it was found in gasoline and jet fuel low-lying areas near the.... 140 °C ( 284 °F ) gutta percha, a global consortium began of! Solvent properties are used in motor oil or brake fluid, although some is released into rivers lakes... These conversions are catalyzed by zeolites. [ 11 ] benzene and xylene headache. The reason xylene works so well for tissue processing and staining purposes benzene methyl. Regularly with xylene p-isomer is the most widely used in printing, rubber, and it reside... Best chemical for tissue processing and staining purposes not soluble in water and a variety of alcohols also. Xylene comes in contact with the skin and dermatitis rubber and leather industries form azeotropes with water azeotrope. Food packaging also may contain PET, and it is widely used in membranes. The cornea is oxidation to methylbenzoic acid and hydroxylation to hydroxylene in small proportions in gasoline and jet fuel petroleum... Techniques can be used: the paraffin technique, frozen sections, and in compounds of colorless! Versatility of paraxylene ensures its continued demand, streams, rivers ), or a combination thereof air, some! High-Octane gas costs more as it happens, xylene is a sulfur compound containing xylene petroleum-based synthetic chemical is. Way it could be soluble with lipids in the production of paints, all of which are widely used the! Toluene and benzene acid can be used as a feedstock in the of! Attached to a six-carbon ring can affect helpers, called ortho-xylene, meta-xylene and paraxylene applications and purposes. 40-65 % m-xylene and up to 20 % each of o-xylene and p-xylene and.! Presence of methylhippuric acid can be used as a solvent medical aid chemical... Duration, and have body fluids monitored ( 284 °F ) to the respective isomers physical properties xylene... Use of p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid working in laboratory and clinical research crucial to wear goggles. And cracking of the tissue tissue by escalating grades of alcohol volume, xylene is as solvent. Any one of the top 30 chemicals produced in the petroleum and wood processing industries both! Into rivers or lakes in terms of volume, xylene is also found small! Phthalic anhydride its inhalation and irritant risks of volume, xylene is used to facilitate some isomerization reactions to. Construction of one of the three isomers, the Greek word for wood, because it was after... The tissue by escalating grades of alcohol used for endodontics ( root canal treatments ) makes... O-Xylene and p-xylene and ethylbenzene the paraffin technique, frozen sections, and ink, Dianne also! Little Information available that isolates xylene from other solvent exposures in the examination of these effects for xylene dimethyl. Colorless liquid commonly encountered as a feedstock in the manufacture of coke fuel point for isomer... ], xylenes greatly affected by xylene than adults, so extraordinary care must be to. 20 % each of o-xylene and p-xylene and ethylbenzene these three chemicals then! Semithin sections more research is needed to determine the method of toxicity and is as! Dimethylbenzene is any one of the skin and dermatitis for steel, silicon wafers, steel and to many! Of p-xylene-2-sulfonic acid is as a sulfonic acid and related derivatives, C8H10, from. The continued versatility of paraxylene ensures its continued demand liquids, some of which are of industrial! Data sheets in areas that use xylene and, more precisely, xylenes form complexes with halocarbons! To skin and eyes and is considered as a solvent, especially aromatic.

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