At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic group were Bantu-speaking peoples who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. While whites enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, comparable to First World Western nations, the black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy.  It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa.  Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a major factor in their decision to leave. South African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75,000 years ago. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", "Inequality in income or expenditure / Gini index, Human Development Report 2007/08", "Distribution of family income – Gini index", "South Africa has highest gap between rich and poor", "South Africa's economy: How it could do even better", "Economic Assessment of South Africa 2008: Achieving Accelerated and Shared Growth for South Africa", "African Countries of the Future 2013/14", "Inequality on scale found in SA bites like acid", "Black middle class boosts car sales in South Africa – Business – Mail & Guardian Online", "Economic Assessment of South Africa 2008", "Health Personnel in Southern Africa: Confronting maldistribution and brain drain", "Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on South and Southern Africa", "South Africa's brain-drain generation returning home", "Strategic Perspectives on Illegal Immigration into South Africa", "The Brain Gain: Skilled Migrants and Immigration Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa", "South Africa: Deadly Attacks on Foreign Truck Drivers", "SKA announces Founding Board and selects Jodrell Bank Observatory to host Project Office", "Africa and Australasia to share Square Kilometre Array", Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, "Professor Says Cape Town Crisis Should Serve as a 'Wakeup Call to All Major U.S. Cities, "Why Cape Town's drought was so hard to forecast", "The 11 cities most likely to run out of drinking water – like Cape Town", "Anti-immigrant violence spreads in South Africa, with attacks reported in Cape Town – The New York Times", "Immigrants Fleeing Fury of South African Mobs", "Debate over race and censuses not peculiar to SA", "Constitution of South Africa, Chapter 1, Section 6", "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions | South African Government", "These are the most-spoken languages in South Africa in 2019", "Community Survey 2016: Provinces at a Glance", "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision, Online Edition", "South Africa – Section I. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) was created in 1994, as an all-volunteer military composed of the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups (Umkhonto we Sizwe and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces. He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot River, in May 1488, but on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas (Cape of Storms). The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional. The last census was held in 2011, with a more recent intercensal national survey conducted in 2016. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS.  Illegal immigrants are involved in informal trading.  The private security industry in South Africa is the largest in the world, with nearly 9,000 registered companies and 400,000 registered active private security guards, more than the South African police and army combined. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and the remainder of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct. , South Africa is also home to a substantial Jewish population, descended from European Jews who arrived as a minority among other European settlers.  In early 2018, Cape Town, which has different weather patterns to the rest of the country, faced a water crisis as the city's water supply was predicted to run dry before the end of June. Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare. During the 1950s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Tim Clark, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel. A proposal from the Arts and Culture Minister, Nathi Mthethwa for South Africa's name to be exchanged with a new name - Azania has become a controversial issue with many South … The Afrikaners slowly developed their own language and culture when they came into contact with Africans and Asians. The Protea flower with pink and yellow petals, is the national flower of South Africa, and hence their cricket team is called proteas. ", African initiated churches formed the largest of the Christian groups.  The 2011 census figures for these groups were: Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured at 8.9%, Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%. , Great Britain occupied Cape Town between 1795 and 1803 to prevent it from falling under the control of the French First Republic, which had invaded the Low Countries. From April 2017 to March 2018, on average 57 murders were committed each day in South Africa. The provinces are in turn divided into 52 districts: 8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities. between the Outeniqua and Langeberg ranges to the south and the Swartberg range to the north) is known as the Little Karoo, which consists of semi-desert scrubland similar to that of the Great Karoo, except that its northern strip along the foothills of the Swartberg Mountains, has a somewhat higher rainfall and is, therefore, more cultivated than the Great Karoo. The lowland area (700–800 m above sea level) to the north of the Swartberg mountain range up to the Great Escarpment is the lowland part of the Great Karoo (see map at top right), which is climatically and botanically almost indistinguishable from the Karoo above the Great Escarpment. At 1,219,912 km2 (471,011 sq mi), according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, South Africa is the 24th-largest country in the world. White South Africans may also speak European languages, including Italian, Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), Dutch, German, and Greek, while some Indian South Africans speak Indian languages, such as Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. Although football (soccer) commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular. , In the late 1970s, South Africa initiated a programme of nuclear weapons development. They went on to win the tournament again in 2007 and in 2019. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. Other sites include Swartkrans, Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. , The adult literacy rate in 2007 was 88.7%. South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.  The most severe effect will be targeting the water supply, which has huge effects on the agriculture sector. , South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population.  If correct, then the number of South African fungi dwarfs that of its plants. Within South African indigenous cultures, the rainbow is associated with hope and a bright future (as in Xhosa culture). Former president, FW de Klerk, maintained that South Africa had "never conducted a clandestine nuclear test. A significant extent of the Bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere. In this regard it is fourth only to Bolivia, India, and Zimbabwe in number. Members of remaining Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. The reason for RSA being known as chokers is that they fail every time in a big ICC event.  Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town, Atlas of Southern Africa. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town. This raises more questions than it asks, though.  Speedy environmental changes are resulting clear effects on the community and environmental level in different ways and aspects, starting with air quality, to temperature and weather patterns, reaching out to food security and disease burden..  The greater Cape Town metropolitan area is situated on the Cape Peninsula and is home to 3.7 million people according to the 2011 population census. , Two distinctive features of the South African water sector are the policy of free basic water and the existence of water boards, which are bulk water supply agencies that operate pipelines and sell water from reservoirs to municipalities. The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members. Most foreign embassies are located in Pretoria.  Queen Elizabeth II lost the title Queen of South Africa, and the last Governor-General, Charles Robberts Swart, became State President. Although most of South Africa’s debt is raised through traditional government bonds and Treasury bills, the government also runs a savings bond scheme which is aimed at the general public. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth.  In time, the Cape became home to a large population of vrijlieden, also known as vrijburgers (lit. After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations.  Upon their return to Holland, they reported favourably on the Cape's potential as a "warehouse and garden" for provisions to stock passing ships for long voyages.  Middle-class South Africans seek security in gated communities. Evidence shows that extreme weather events are becoming more prominent due to climate change. The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. , South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians. , In August 2013, South Africa was ranked as the top African Country of the Future by fDi magazine based on the country's economic potential, labour environment, cost-effectiveness, infrastructure, business friendliness, and foreign direct investment strategy.. This is not a province, but an independent country formally called the Kingdom of Lesotho. South Africa's national cricket team, the Proteas, has also won the inaugural edition of the 1998 ICC KnockOut Trophy by defeating West Indies in the final. New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes. Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine.  South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s According to former state president FW de Klerk, the decision to build a "nuclear deterrent" was taken "as early as 1974 against a backdrop of a Soviet expansionist threat. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. , According to the 2015 UNAIDS Report, South Africa has an estimated seven million people living with HIV – more than any other country in the world. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town. After the end of apartheid some people flt that Springbok should no longer be used and the South African national cricket team adopted the name and badge of the protea - indigenous South African wild flower. As the Union of South Africa, the country was a founding member of the UN. A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Up to 1945, more than 4900 species of fungi (including lichen-forming species) had been recorded. About 80% of South Africans are of Black African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages. The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress (ANC), the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) carrying out guerrilla warfare and urban sabotage. , A 2008 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.6% of blacks are HIV-positive, whereas only 0.3% of whites have the disease. , In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape sea route, Jan van Riebeeck established a victualling station at the Cape of Good Hope, at what would become Cape Town, on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The deep interior of mainland South Africa has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C (125.06 °F) was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape Kalahari near Upington, but this temperature is unofficial and was not recorded with standard equipment, the official highest temperature is 48.8 °C (119.84 °F) at Vioolsdrif in January 1993. The plays of Athol Fugard have been regularly premiered in fringe theatres in South Africa, London (Royal Court Theatre) and New York. Since 2004, South Africa has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".  South Africa also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa.  From 2004 onward, economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased.  Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since the year 1994. The climatic zones range from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the border with Mozambique and the Indian Ocean. The scattered tribes of Khoisan peoples moving into South Africa from around 10,000 BC had their own fluent art styles seen today in a multitude of cave paintings. There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers, generally called sangomas or inyangas. In 1931, the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, which abolished the last powers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to legislate on the country. South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency and Corruption, and Participation and Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety and Security. It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. Since 1994, the country has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. There are several species of water-storing succulents, like aloes and euphorbias, in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. (1984). The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) attributes this difference to South Africa's widespread welfare system. Unlike the primary metaphor, the room for different cultural interpretations of the colour spectrum is slight. Helen Hemingway Benton Publishers, Chicago. In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. According to several surveys, there has been a reverse in brain drain following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 and expiration of foreign work contracts. Taking Canada's Indian Act as a framework, the nationalist government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each.  Rape occurs most commonly in relationships but many men and women say that rape cannot occur in relationships; however, one in four women reported having been abused by an intimate partner. South Africa is a nation of about 55 million (2016) people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today. The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the Cape, Transvaal and Natal colonies, as well as the Orange Free State republic. They migrated to the future Natal, Free State, and Transvaal regions. With approval from the white electorate in a 1992 referendum, the government continued negotiations to end apartheid. , The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV. p. 19. South Africa has won the Rugby World Cup three times, tying New Zealand for the most Rugby World Cup wins. It has also served in multinational UN Peacekeeping forces such as the UN Force Intervention Brigade for example. South Africa held its first universal elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since. The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Buffelsfontein has colder extremes.  During the presidency of Jacob Zuma, the government increased the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). South Africa has many major ports including Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth that allow ships and other boats to pass through, some carrying passengers and some carrying petroleum tankers. ) South of the Lowveld the annual rainfall increases as one enters KwaZulu-Natal Province, which, especially near the coast, is subtropically hot and humid. Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa.  Nevertheless, as South Africa continues to grapple with racial issues, one of the proposed solutions has been to pass legislation, such as the pending Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill, to uphold South Africa's ban on racism and commitment to equality. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 205 local municipalities. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British.. It is often referred to as an 'enclave of South Africa' because it is surrounded by the larger nation.  These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Just like many other parts of the world, climate research showed that the real challenge in South Africa was more related to environmental issues more than developmental ones. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 0.6% were "other" and 1.4% were "unspecified. Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. The legally institutionalised segregation became known as apartheid. Although few South African film productions are known outside South Africa itself, many foreign films have been produced about South Africa. This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. Atlas of Southern Africa. This population peaked in the 1970s at 120,000, though only around 67,000 remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel. Why is the South African cricket team called "proteas"? Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr, the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar, and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops. South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. Stretching latitudinally from 22°S to 35°S and longitudinally from 17°E to 33°E, South Africa’s surface area covers 1 219 602 km2.Physical features range from bushveld, grasslands, forests, deserts and majestic mountain peaks, to wide unspoilt beaches and coastal wetlands.The country shares common boundaries with Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland, while the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho is lan… The land (at approximately 400–500 m above sea level) between two of these ranges of fold mountains in the south (i.e. Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology (formerly called "technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. posted by Sidhedevil at 8:44 PM on September 9, 2008 South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl and Barrydale.. VI, p. 750. There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. The mid-eastern, and highest part of the plateau is known as the Highveld. South Africa is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union (SACU), Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), G20, G8+5, and the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa. South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the 19th century. With colonialism, which began in South Africa in 1652, came the Slavery and Forced Labour Model. It is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity. The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation.  A 2009 survey of 1,738 men in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape by the Medical Research Council found one in four men admitted to raping someone and another survey of 4,000 women in Johannesburg by CIET Africa found one in three said they had been raped in the past year. The Afrikaans for "South Africa" is "Suid-Afrika" so SA would be more logical. The different types of savings bonds offered by the South African government are shown in the table below. The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), founded by Julius Malema, former President of the ANC's Youth Wing (ANC Youth League) who was later expelled from the ANC, won 10.79% of the vote and 44 seats. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus 1.2%, traditional African religion 0.3% and Judaism 0.2%.  World Bank research shows that South Africa has one of the widest gaps between per capita GDP versus its Human Development Index (HDI) ranking, with only Botswana showing a larger gap. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%). In the south-west corner of the country, the Cape Peninsula forms the southernmost tip of the coastal strip which borders the Atlantic Ocean and ultimately terminates at the country's border with Namibia at the Orange River.  South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans. Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was District 9. Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. The little rain that falls tends to fall in winter, which results in one of the world's most spectacular displays of flowers carpeting huge stretches of veld in spring (August–September). When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.".  The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions estimated that over 100,000 people were driven from their homes.  Although English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it is only the fourth most common home language, that of only 9.6% of South Africans in 2011; nevertheless, it has become the de facto lingua franca of the nation. Rainbow Nation is a term coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu to describe post-apartheid South Africa, after South Africa's first fully democratic election in 1994. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, and regular elections have been held for almost a century. The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn (Vachellia erioloba). JM Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 2003. Njesuthi in the Drakensberg at 3,408 m (11,181 ft) is the highest part in South Africa. (1984).  The Boers inability to subdue Sekhukhune and the Pedi led to the departure of Burgers in favour of Paul Kruger and the British annexation of the South African Republic(Transvaal) on 12 April 1877 by Sir Theophilus Shepstone, secretary for native affairs of Natal. The most southerly portion of this coastal belt is known as the Swartland and Malmesbury Plain, which is an important wheat growing region, relying on winter rains. No President may serve more than two terms in office.  This is hotter, drier and less intensely cultivated than the Highveld above the escarpment. During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws. The legislature elects a Premier as head of government, and the Premier appoints an Executive Council as a provincial cabinet.  and is almost certainly detrimental for the wellbeing of those reliant on the healthcare infrastructure. South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety available.  This led to the development of a new ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, most of whom adopted the Dutch language and Christian faith. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the United Kingdom and the Zulu Kingdom.  The incidence of child and infant rape is among the highest in the world, largely as a result of the virgin cleansing myth, and a number of high-profile cases (sometimes as young as eight months) have outraged the nation. Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at 1,740 m (5,709 ft) above sea level and receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). In 2015, 71 percent of net wealth are held by 10 percent richest of the population, whereas 60 percent of the poorest held only 7 percent of the net wealth and the Gini coefficient was 0.63, whereas in 1996 was 0.61. Even so, these numbers make the Jewish community in South Africa the twelfth largest in the world. With that system, the government, controlled … They got this name because, despite consistently being a strong team a one of the contenders at every ICC event, they have not been able to win a single knockout game(until their QF win over Sri Lanks in CWC2015) let … These features have led to significant problems concerning the financial sustainability of service providers, leading to a lack of attention to maintenance. There is great diversity in South African music. Members of the middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people, have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. The Little Karoo is historically, and still, famous for its ostrich farming around the town of Oudtshoorn. The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 24th-most populous nation and covers an area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 square miles). These healers use a combination of ancestral spiritual beliefs and a belief in the spiritual and medicinal properties of local fauna and flora, commonly known as muti, to facilitate healing in clients. The majority of people in South Africa use informal minibus taxis as their main mode of transport. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 24th-most populous nation and covers an area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 square miles). , this metaphor drew upon the Old Testament story of Noah 's Flood, and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops within! 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