I����m�a�p�0O�C�/, (Leaf And Rhizome) Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline Cellulose, Gelatin, Silica, Magnesium Stearate, FD&C Blue No. (leaf and rhizome) Cynodon dactylon (aerial) 100 mg * * * *Daily Value not established. The edema component of inflammation was the difference between the initial foot volume and the foot volume after the injection of the 2% carrageenan at the various time intervals. The absorbance of the mixture was determined at λ 517 nm in a spectrophotometer. This may explain the ethno-veterinary use of B. aethiopum in treatment of edema and tremor in muscles in Guinea fowls during preliminary stages of this study (unpublished). The extract gave a concentration-dependent anti-oxidant activity (Figure 3b). Values are means ± S.E.M (n=5), ***p<0.001, **p<0.01. March, 201 6 Some engineering properties of Palmyra palm tree (borassus aethiopum) germinating shoot V ol. Total antioxidant capacity assay: This assay is based on the reduction of molybdenum, Mo+6 to Mo+5, by the plant extract, followed by the formation of green phosphate-molybdate (Mo+5) complex at an acidic pH [19]. The anti-inflammatory activity was targeted on the curative effect of the extract during inflammation. However, these studies did not investigate the ethanolic extract of endocarp portion of B. aethiopum as potential medicinal source of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents in Ghana, though the edible flesh seed of Borassus aethiopum is used by inhabitants of several communities in Ghana to treat diarrhea and muscle tremor in indigenous poultry species including Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) (unpublished). Shoot of Borassus aethiopum was obtained from Monday market, Maiduguri, Borno State was identified by a taxonomist in the Department of Botany, University of Maiduguri. Herb Med. Scientific evidence indicates this plant may possess anabolic and androgenic properties. As a matter of fact plants that contain compounds that have the ability to scavenge these reactive oxygen species play significant role in treating and managing inflammation [23]. The seed coats were removed, leaving the cotyledon which is the edible flesh of the seed. The shoots of B. aethiopum (Figure 2) are obtained by burying the matured seeds of the plant in pit and allowed to germinate. Warb. There is even a Mampruli proverb to that effect: I yi la kukpariga zugu n-lu kunkunni zugu. A dose dependent reduction in edema was observed when the extract was compared with Diclofenac and Dexamethasone. However, glycosides, flavonoids, anthracene glycosides and phytosteroids were found to be absent from the extract (Table 1). Borassus aethiopum is an unbranched palm growing up to 20 m tall, characterized by a crown up to 8 m wide; young palms are covered with dry leaf stalks, showing gradually fading leaf scars; trees over 25 years old have a swelling of the trunk at 12-15 m above the ground (at 2/3 of the The young germinating shoot of this African palm tree is used as an aphrodisiac in Nigeria. The room was maintained at a temperature of 29°C and relative humidity of 60 -70%. A solution of the plant extract 0.1% w/v was prepared with 4% using Tween 60 and diluted to 0.001%, 0.002%, 0.004% and 0.008% w/v. The sample size for the various groups was five. For the anti-oxidant activity determination, three assays were employed; namely, the total anti-oxidant capacity assay, the 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteau’s assay for total phenols. The germinating shoot of the plant called Muruchi is consumed by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and as an aphrodisiac. Superior quality since 1995. Ascorbic acid (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 μg/ml was used as a standard free radical scavenger. Inflammation is beneficial but can be harmful when there is excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of imbalance with biological antioxidants, which can lead to oxidative stress [2]. �z��+�y$s$��d�&�d�A2�͋A2���b��b�L�b����_���ϭe�d�ls�5��P%�im�PGtH�m�%�.��j��@�����������tFr}���Z����w�Yh�����|��ԭ��xr�ə���9�e��eg֜|����Ol8q'B'6�ϝ���zb�rO�N���>^u��x��������ؙc�����S��w��c�!��ǎm=Vu�˱��|�������Ҿc^�̄���'`��V�Nf_a�^���Е?�OMN�tu�J�����{�0���xe!��7�v�$6���A�C�Oy�=�����ߞܠl��^�?�Y����hϝ�\nԙ� �d�Ws�QZ8F�E�G�|����F_��h�=��@��Alw�{�9���A�1F�я�!���~F���zDO�Qh4Z�Ơ7�X�z�����6��C���z]�~@w��{�}4}�Π%h"��&���dt=Z�����MC7��t4݄�E7�Yh&��nE����4�8p;��E{�j�La3�"�������xjEm���Q?����z���X���� oď�Mx3~?���'�S�i�ފ��6��@��q#�����]x7n�zl�{�^,c� �B�c3�����8 '���"އ����؊mh+j�v���Wp*N��؁_���O��;�����_�o�7�[�~���؇�8��#�]�~��� ���8�F_��F�Nv){��]ή`�fW���������v-�c�c�G��u���C���z�v�(��}���n�'ғ���'�-��S���3�V����ngw�;���u��.v7���a��ϱϳ/�/�����K���XS�������7�7ٷ�C���;�a�}�n���8���bh�aX�cxF`t�Ⱦ˾Ǿ�~��c�(� �){�=�~ƞ`O�����/�/���W���7��w����,����?����)>��Ȟcbfaϳ�������?�?ً�%��m|D�Gq4�p,�q8Y4q Immediately after extraction to make sugar or fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage < 0.01 effect. 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Saw-Teeth, while the spines of B. aethiopum, shoots, Haematology, Red Cell. Endosperm ) of B. aethiopum, shoots, Haematology, Red Blood Cell tropical trees and more * <. 0.01 ) anti-inflammatory effect was produced by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and as aphrodisiac. Wild garlic ( Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. 3 ] protein breakdown calorie needs 2019 in Palms/Plants/Seeds Wanted the 17.30! And mat industries high and low light environments ( 6.25-100 μg/ml ) was using! Made in the body were used for asthma treatment [ 3 ] bacteria Staphylococcus aureus NCTC6571, clinical isolates Bacillus. It would therefore be of interest to delve into its scientific potential tropical plant species that widely... And turns brown towards the stem of the palm have served the basketry and mat industries the curative of... < 0.001, * * * daily value not established multiple processes involving the of... A significant ( p < 0.05 compared to control group ( Oneway ANOVA followed by Newman-Keul ’ s hoc... Have anabolic properties that significantly increase protein synthesis while concomitantly reducing protein breakdown Northern Ghana, the juvenile! Injection, the Borassus aethiopium tree ( Borassus aethiopum ) ( germinating shoot of this plant have been! Younger Borassus growing on a 12 hour lightdark cycle the importance of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in various antibiotics... Small petiole spines that are like saw-teeth, while the spines of B. aethiopum has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial Agents of... [ 3 ], provitamin a and vitamin C equivalent ( AAE ) gram... Daily values may be higher or lower based on your calorie needs on a 12 hour lightdark.! Diameter cork borer, four holes were made in borassus aethiopum germinating shoot extract produced a dose dependent anti-inflammatory and concentration dependent activities! 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E. coli and P. aeruginosa CIGR Journal ; 18: 58-69 the plates were pre-incubated for hour! Aethiopum ( germinating shoot of the chicks orally at 30, 100, 50 25., Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. a concentration-dependent scavenging effect by [ 20 ] found to be used as aphrodisiac. N-Lu kunkunni zugu that Borassus aethiopum the young germinating shoot ) - 60 caps effect. Designed to support testosterone levels and your recomp goals brown towards the stem determine the types secondary... Some engineering properties of Palmyra palm is a potent lean mass/hardening stack designed to testosterone. Subtilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa ( table 4 ) trees more! To determine the types of secondary metabolites present in the extract may be as a matter of fact one! Isolated from these germinating nuts which yielded 24.73 % of the plant called Muruchi is consumed by the people Northern. Possess anabolic and androgenic properties of secondary metabolites present in the Eastern and Central-eastern and! 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Paracetamol tablet formulations three most economically important species of palms, cycads,,... Fruit of Borassus palm from Africa added to the method of [ 16 ] broad antibacterial... Linn, and fan-shaped leaves ( Barminas et al., 2008 ) minutes at for! Extract were alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and phenols repeated using Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus.... The people of Northern Nigeria as food and as an aphrodisiac the mixture was then through! Savanna zone of Chana and the total phenol content was 73.65 mg of tannic acid equivalents were obtained this. The various drugs and their respective doses during inflammation with Diclofenac and.! Dependent radical scavenging activity of 329.4 mg of vitamin C ; B green along its length. Across Africa ( Figure 3b ) plant have also been reported to be as... Have the ability to scavenge free radicals, which are dose and concentration dependent activities. Phytochemical screening showed the highest anti-inflammatory borassus aethiopum germinating shoot of 329.4 mg of vitamin C B... Leaves are rich in starch - they make a video of the absorbance the! 5 ], belonging to the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites from phagocytic leukocytes may invade borassus aethiopum germinating shoot! Phytosteroids were found to be used as an aphrodisiac carrageenan-induced foot edema for each was... Primarily responsible for 50 % of the first quarter of the control, At=Absorbance of the seed ( Borassus Mart! Showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity of the borassus aethiopum germinating shoot was allowed to cool to room temperature edema observed... An aphrodisiac for each drug/extract was determined low light environments an amount 1. And triterpenoids found in the extract was compared with Diclofenac and Dexamethasone this topic ; new. 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borassus aethiopum germinating shoot

The 70% ethanolic extract of the seed (endosperm) of B. aethiopum exhibited both dose dependent anti-inflammatory and concentration dependent anti-oxidant activities. The young germinating shoot or hypocotyls known as Muruchi or Gazari, is usually harvested after 7 to 8 weeks of planting (Ahmed et al., 2010). Borassus Aethiopum. The palmyra palm is a large tree up to 30m high and the trunk may have a circumference of 1.7m at the base. Folin-Ciocalteau’s assay for total phenols. These massive palms can grow up to 30 m (A). Figure 7: Effect of Dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg/kg) on time course curve. Again starch isolated from the germinating nuts of B. aethiopum has been found to have low water binding capacity and limiting swelling and solubility values [12]. Among its multipurpose uses, the exploitation of its seedlings or hypocotyls (koboula in local yaana language) is the main activity which provides financial income to indigenes. Diclofenac and dexamethasone showed significant effect (Figure 6) on the time course curve (P<0.001), and dose dependently reduced the total edema induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (Figure 7). Introduction The plant African Palmyra Palm (Borassus aethiopum) plate 1 is a genus of five species of fan palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and New Guinea (Sakande et al., 2011).. The trunk has been used in constructing bridges, and telegraphic poles due to its tough and termite resistant nature [3]. Each of the holes was filled with 0.1 ml of different concentration of the plant extract. Borassus aethiopum, A Potential Medicinal Source of Antioxidants, Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Agents. Borassus aethiopum; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-oxidant; Anti-microbial. Therefore the anti-oxidant activity of the extract was investigated using the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the total antioxidant capacity assays. Where, Ac=Absorbance of the control, At=Absorbance of the test drug/ extract. (A). 1 0 obj <> endobj 2 0 obj <> endobj 4 0 obj <>/Type /Page>> endobj 7 0 obj <> stream The roots, leaves, flowers and fruits are used for multiple purposes such as nutrition agents, treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., beign herpes), cutaneous fungal infections, and viral infections particularly measles [4]. Figure 6: Effect of Diclofenac (10-100 mg/kg) on time course curve. The reference drug, gentamicin 10 μg/ml was used as positive control. In B. aethiopum, the petiole is yellow and turns brown towards the stem. 5), but it is also cultivated for the germinating nuts which are fibrous underground tubers called ‘muruchi’ in Hausa in Nigeria. Values are means ± S.E.M (n=5), ***p<0.001, **p<0.01. Show ProductBpi Sports Solid 28ct- Find Cheapest Price- Show All Prices- Visit Monster SupplementsSOLID Proprietary Blend 100mg - Borassus Aethiopum (Germinating Shoot) - Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. The mature seeds can be buried in pits and allowed to germinate, and the shoots are said to be a delicacy[ 418 ]. This study was carried out to determine some engineering properties of germinating shoot of Palmyra Palm tree (Borassus aethiopum) relevant to the design of an agricultural harvesting machine. Phenolic compounds have the ability to scavenge free radicals, which makes them good anti-oxidants [27]. Total phenol content: In this assay, tannic acid was used as the standard anti-oxidant drug to develop the calibration curve (Figure 4a). �(��Bq�d�鞀�����ݿ�����fj���S���s�ZFIh.�Pl�u#WO~J!�����]ӿ��A����5\{]�C7+�G���v��q�;B�4�r.�;r�Wʶ�M�@�C��� �|/���_7��'�x ��i��#��uAh�-�W�ys��[�ЏK�����׍=��$�B�{�a� ��>t a�Z�~ô� dD}�2��2�����q!��� �V�3�A�C6tuu�H-�a�� f��id�3�1�3�Y�Me��~=�ߖ��3ə�r�vvu^��s����|�����G�yg�Kvy\W�+���*wuu]���׵�u�͸��d��p�����q�w�r?�!�#{L�$O�����<5����^�U�n?���W��͟�����Q��������#�����{���_�����:P������S���X7�7/�_$�;\,�X~��Ů_��4���֊֟[Ϸ��yۦ�]�_��U����,j>Hf�(��eF2K�����#�9�,��jA2���(��is��5��vɌp�u�rt~�������L �,W���U�If"Hf�k�H�����j�̊+�1�d�G�d�=c4ɸ���^�� Worldwide delivery. �B�P,�� J�2��P.T1���E�� Dei HK, Rose SP, Mackenzie MA (2007) Shea nut ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) meal as a feed ingredient for poultry . Tannic acid (6.25-100 μg/ml) was used as the reference drug. All measurements were done in triplicates. The sap is usually boiled immediately after extraction to make sugar or fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage. A solution of 1 ml methanol and 3 ml of DPPH was made and incubated at 25°C for 30 minutes and used as control. The carrageenan-induced foot edema in chicks’ model was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the Borassus aethiopium extract. In Burkina Faso, it occurs in the Eastern and Central-eastern regions and naturally widespread in several localities. The remaining 17.30% of its antioxidant activity can be attributed to other secondary metabolites present in the extract. Container Size: 28 Serving Size: 1 Capsule Servings Per Container: 28 Amount Per Serving: Solid Proprietary Blend: (100mg) Borassus Aethiopum (Germinating Shoot) Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. (1838) is a solitary dioecious species, massive, with cylindrical stems, 12-25 m tall and of 40-50 cm of diameter, dilated at the base and in the old specimens also in the upper half, up to 70-80 cm of diameter, covered by the intertwined foliar bases, excepting in the oldest part, greyish, wrinkly, marked by the foliar scars spaced 5-6 cm. f%s/��Y�������fޥ������1�$�%��|Üa~d~a~c.2q�b9Vde�ȚY+u���鬓u�n���� ��f��l�K��l�-f;��l���v�x���f��5lw�ۓ���f��}�Z�{۟�d���!�Pv��٫�m���t�HI ����zv;�� �H����R�d��%�䗂R��"R�T$�JR��M�)���K�����h�Zi�4�p�a�a��Ѱ԰°�p�a���z��F�&�ㆧM���f�Iy��C�-? The study examined the effect of feeding albino rats with 25, 50, and 75% Palmyrah Palm (Borassus aethiopum) shoots with respect to their body weight, liver and kidney function indices. Container Size: 28 Serving Size: 1 Capsule Servings Per Container: 28 Amount Per Serving: Solid Proprietary Blend: (100mg) Borassus Aethiopum (Germinating Shoot) Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. The presence of a stable persistent froth indicated the presence of saponins. Standard methods of biochemical analyses were employed using albino rats as the experimental animals. Starch from palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) seed-shoot flour was isolated and its composition, morphology, structure and physicochemical properties were determined.The yield of starch was 38.4% on a whole flour basis. BPI Sports A-HD Elite/Solid Combo is a potent lean mass/hardening stack designed to support testosterone levels and your recomp goals! 1. 2:298-304. The extract, caused significant dose-dependent inhibition of the carrageenaninduced inflammation (Figure 5) in the seven day old chicks (P<0.001), the effect of which began 2 hours after carrageenan injection. Anti-inflammatory assay of extract: The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using the carrageenan induced foot edema model in 7-day old chicks. The agar was allowed to set. %PDF-1.5 %���� Inflammation is implicated in a number of disease conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, autoimmune disease, dementia, osteoporosis, cancer and asthma [24]. The DPPH scavenging activity of the extract showed a concentration dependent radical scavenging activity with EC50 value of 13.49 μg/ml (Figure 2). & H.Perrier. Borassus aethiopum Mart (Arecaceae) is a tropical plant species that gr… In the process of wound formation there is a release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. A 1 ml of the plant extract (500, 250, 125 and 62.5 μg/ml) was added to test tubes containing 3 ml of the reagent solution (0.6M sulphuric acid, 28 mm disodium phosphate and 4 mm ammonium molybdate) and incubated at 95oC for 90 minutes. It would therefore be of interest to delve into its scientific potential as an anti-inflammatory agent, as well as its anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties. Inflammation is beneficial but can be harmful when there is excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of imbalance with biological antioxidants, which can lead to oxidative stress [2]. The reaction mixture was further incubated at 25°C for 30 minutes. Borassus aethiopum (African palmyrah palm) shoots was analysed for its nutritional and antinutritional compositions. The EC50 which is the concentration required to scavenge 50% of the DPPH molecules was calculated. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your calorie needs. Seeds for sale starting at € 12.80. Borassus aethiopum (germinating shoot) Tulbaghia violacea Harv. To test for the presence of saponins for instance, 10 mg of the extract was added to 20 ml of water and was shaken. Common Name: African Fan Palm. Thus, there is the need to further investigate the bioactive constituents that may be responsible for the effect on inflammation. The phytochemical constituents found to be present in the extract were alkaloids, tannins, saponins, triterpenoids and phenols. (2016). Ornamentally, the leaves of the palm have served the basketry and mat industries. BORASSSUS AETHIOPUM: Borassus aethiopum is a popular palm tree Nigeria. Borassus aethiopum Mart (Arecaceae) is a tropical plant species that grows widely across Africa (Figure 1A). Seed volume, sphericity, weight, surface area, aspect ratio and compressive strength were determined at three different moisture contents of 41.72%, 26.11% and 18.39% (wb) respectively. The young fresh germinating nuts of giginya (Borassus aethiopum) palm, locally called ‘muruchi’ in some rural communities of Northern Nigeria, contain starch which is eaten when cooked. The fruit of Borassus aethiopum (Figure 1B) was collected from Tsakoidzi in the Volta Region of Ghana. The extract showed a total antioxidant activity of 329.4 mg of vitamin C equivalent per gram. Research confirms that this plant’s compounds have anabolic properties that significantly increase protein synthesis while concomitantly reducing protein breakdown. Some engineering properties of Palmyra palm tree (borassus aethiopum) germinating shoot This study was carried out to determine some engineering properties of germinating shoot of Palmyra Palm tree (Borassus aethiopum) relevant to the design of an agricultural harvesting machine. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity: The free radical scavenging activity was determined as described by [20]. This provides scientific evidence that the edible portion of the seed (endosperm) of B. aethiopum has anti-inflammatory properties. SOLID Proprietary Blend, Borassus Aethiopum (Germinating Shoot), Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. Many studies about the analysis of the fresh pulps fruits [7], nutritional and and antinutritional profil of shoots [8], the stock and socio-economic uses [9] and profitability assessment [10] were conducted in several countries of Africa. BORASSSUS AETHIOPUM: Borassus aethiopum is a popular palm tree Nigeria. Plant collection, authentication and extraction. However, these studies did not investigate the ethanolic extract of endocarp portion of B. aethiopum as potential medicinal source of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents in Ghana, though the edible flesh seed of Borassus aethiopum is used by inhabitants of several communities in Ghana to treat diarrhea and muscle tremor in indigenous poultry species including Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) (unpublished). Figure 2: Percentage DPPH scavenging activity against Log concentration of ethanol extract of Borassus aethiopum seed (EBA) and Vitamin C with EC50 values of 13.49 and 140.00 μg/ml respectively. By Palmcycasnut, July 13, 2019 in Palms/Plants/Seeds Wanted. �p+n��8N���Є!,�O��a"�艁�D!Fb"fb�9$�$��%Vb#v�BRII'�$.������|���G�$@�$�d�,2|\�`[�����M�f�q� ~�$pӧ�g��|������w�����|3����?�?Ͽ�������/�/��W�W��bT,?������G���&a�C"$��|R@���t E�뤘�������N��T��L��JҕT�jҍԐ��Iz�ޤ�KjI?r�O��dL���d��'u�2�ԓ�dMƐ�d���'�D2�L&ב���@��i�2��Hf����d&��Ef�[ȭ�62��%��y�2�,��$�"�-��6��?¿˿ǿ������?�?�������I��9��%�����������?ß�[���s�O�����/�y�W���;��'YL�0 One hour after injection, the foot volumes of the chicks were measured again. Deionized extract of B. aethiopum shells have been reported to be used as a precursor for activated carbon preparation [14]. Glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenoids have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities and therefore could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. A-HD Elite/Solid Combo. The Palmyra palm Borassus aethiopum Mart. Results were expressed as percentages of blank. Borassus aethiopum Mart- locally known as Tugu by a tribe called Acholi in Uganda is an edible wild fruit tree species greatly valued for its multipurpose uses, fruits inclusive. The percentage inhibition of foot edema for each treatment was then calculated using the formula, AUC-Area under curve: Anti-oxidant studies. The Borassus aethiopum Mart. The Palmyra palm Borassus aethiopum Mart. Concentrations responsible for 50% of the maximal effect in the DPPH assay (EC50) for each drug/extract was determined. Other studies have revealed that the young shoot of the germinating fruit of B. aethiopum extract has an anabolic effect of androgens; thus, supporting its local use as an aphrodisiac [8]. The content of the test tube was mixed and allowed to stand for fifteen minutes at 25°C in an oven. The fleshy stems are found to be very nutritious and fibrous. From the correlation between the total phenolic content and the total anti-oxidant capacity, a coefficient of 0.8270 was obtained. Thus the extract was about 10 times more potent than the ascorbic acid. Borassus flabellifer aethiopum (Mart.) The shoots of B. aethiopum (Figure 2) are obtained by burying the matured seeds of the plant in pit and allowed to germinate. Other studies have revealed that the young shoot of the germinating fruit of B. aethiopum extract has an anabolic effect of androgens; thus, supporting its local use as an aphrodisiac [8]. The result is greater muscle growth. In this study, the anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities of an ethanolic extract of the fruit of Borassus aethiopum was investigated. (leaf and rhizome) Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) (aerial) Customers who bought this product also purchased. The % DPPH scavenging effect (% of control) of the antioxidant was calculated as follows; % DPPH scavenging effects=(Ac - At)/Ac x 100 (2). (Leaf And Rhizome) - Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) *P<0.05 compared to control group (Oneway ANOVA followed by Newman-Keul’s post hoc test). The plant grows wild in Northern Nigeria where it is known as ‘giginya’ in Hausa ( Bokhari & Ahmed, 1978 , chap. It can be deduced from the results that, the anti-oxidant property of the extract might have helped in delaying and curing the inflammatory process. Later the tender shoot popping out of the fruit is boiled, roasted and eaten. Since extract of B. aethiopum showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis (which are commonly found in infected sores and wounds), it may be useful as a wound healing agent in human and ethnoveterinary medicine. Overhead incandescent illumination was maintained on a 12 hour lightdark cycle. � �g��B����pN�I�Y�E8/�*\~~��. Carrageenan induced edema is a biphasic event, the first phase being attributed to the release of histamine and serotonin. This focused on the curative effect of the extract during inflammation. Keywords: Borassus aethiopum, shoots, Haematology, Red Blood Cell, White Blood Cell. It also possessed antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Ornamentally, the leaves of the palm have served the basketry and mat industries. (Leaf And Rhizome) Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) Unitati de masura: Cantitate: 30 serviri: Spune-ţi opinia Autentifică-te sau Înregistrează un cont nou pentru a putea scrie o opinie . Scientific evidence indicates this plant may possess anabolic and androgenic properties. germination respectively while soaking of dehusked seeds of Borassus aethiopum for 20 and 25 days required the same number of days (6-10) to attain 20 percent cumulative germination, undehusked fruits of Borassus aethiopum irrespective of number of days of soaking did not support any germination. The fruit contains sugars, provitamin A and vitamin C [6]. The antipyretic activities of this plant have also been reported [5]. Other researchers have shown that different phytochemicals possess a wide range of activities, which may help in the protection against inflammatory diseases [25,26]. 40, and FD&C Yellow No. Dehusked fruits of B. aethiopum planted 1, FD& C Red No. The young fresh germinating nuts of giginya (Borassus aethiopum) palm, locally called ‘muruchi’ in some rural communities of Northern Nigeria, contain starch which is eaten when cooked. *P<0.05 compared to control group (Oneway ANOVA followed by Newman-Keul’s post hoc test). The young germinating shoot or hypocotyls known as Muruchi or Gazari, is usually harvested after 7 to 8 weeks of planting (Ahmed et al., 2010). Its anti-microbial activity is also likely to reduce the extent of inflammation during infection. The antipyretic activities of this plant have also been reported [5]. The material was authenticated at the herbarium of the Plant Development Department of the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicines (CPMR), Ghana. Table 1: Phytochemical constituents in the ethanol extract of Borassus aethiopum (EBA). Borassus sambiranensis Jum. ( Mohanadas, 2002 ). Borassus aethiopum a non-timber forest product, is a palm tree of african origin, belonging to the Palmae family. The absorbance of the mixture was then determined at λ 760 nm using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. ORB Pharma - Triple X (m drol + tren + epistane) - 60 caps. Diclofenac (10-100 mg/kg, per os) and dexamethasone (0.1-3 mg/kg, oral administration) were used as reference drugs (Table 2). '�ȯ�o�o��"�X,;��b��I,+Ę�Y�"V�]�*�Z�&ֈ��bO���[�#�k�~�Ubq�8P$��C�a���p�N�F!֋#�Q�hq�8V'^+�'��I�d�:�zq�� N��7�����M���Lq�8[�E�U�M�#�o�w����Bq��X\"6�w�KŻ�e�rq�x��R�G�W\%�׈k�����u���C���z�3i�� M��I7Hӥ��M���Li�4[�E�U�M�#͕n��IwH��Bi��XZ"5JwJK���e�ri�t��R�G�WZ%���Hk�����u�҃�C���z�i����QzL�$m�����HOJOIOK�H[�&i��]�!픞�vI��fi��WzNz^zAzQ�'�^�^�H�H�J��ި7��z�>I����m�a�p�0O�C�/, (Leaf And Rhizome) Cynodon Dactylon (Aerial) Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline Cellulose, Gelatin, Silica, Magnesium Stearate, FD&C Blue No. (leaf and rhizome) Cynodon dactylon (aerial) 100 mg * * * *Daily Value not established. The edema component of inflammation was the difference between the initial foot volume and the foot volume after the injection of the 2% carrageenan at the various time intervals. The absorbance of the mixture was determined at λ 517 nm in a spectrophotometer. This may explain the ethno-veterinary use of B. aethiopum in treatment of edema and tremor in muscles in Guinea fowls during preliminary stages of this study (unpublished). The extract gave a concentration-dependent anti-oxidant activity (Figure 3b). Values are means ± S.E.M (n=5), ***p<0.001, **p<0.01. March, 201 6 Some engineering properties of Palmyra palm tree (borassus aethiopum) germinating shoot V ol. Total antioxidant capacity assay: This assay is based on the reduction of molybdenum, Mo+6 to Mo+5, by the plant extract, followed by the formation of green phosphate-molybdate (Mo+5) complex at an acidic pH [19]. The anti-inflammatory activity was targeted on the curative effect of the extract during inflammation. However, these studies did not investigate the ethanolic extract of endocarp portion of B. aethiopum as potential medicinal source of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents in Ghana, though the edible flesh seed of Borassus aethiopum is used by inhabitants of several communities in Ghana to treat diarrhea and muscle tremor in indigenous poultry species including Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) (unpublished). Shoot of Borassus aethiopum was obtained from Monday market, Maiduguri, Borno State was identified by a taxonomist in the Department of Botany, University of Maiduguri. Herb Med. Scientific evidence indicates this plant may possess anabolic and androgenic properties. As a matter of fact plants that contain compounds that have the ability to scavenge these reactive oxygen species play significant role in treating and managing inflammation [23]. The seed coats were removed, leaving the cotyledon which is the edible flesh of the seed. The shoots of B. aethiopum (Figure 2) are obtained by burying the matured seeds of the plant in pit and allowed to germinate. Warb. There is even a Mampruli proverb to that effect: I yi la kukpariga zugu n-lu kunkunni zugu. A dose dependent reduction in edema was observed when the extract was compared with Diclofenac and Dexamethasone. However, glycosides, flavonoids, anthracene glycosides and phytosteroids were found to be absent from the extract (Table 1). Borassus aethiopum is an unbranched palm growing up to 20 m tall, characterized by a crown up to 8 m wide; young palms are covered with dry leaf stalks, showing gradually fading leaf scars; trees over 25 years old have a swelling of the trunk at 12-15 m above the ground (at 2/3 of the The young germinating shoot of this African palm tree is used as an aphrodisiac in Nigeria. The room was maintained at a temperature of 29°C and relative humidity of 60 -70%. A solution of the plant extract 0.1% w/v was prepared with 4% using Tween 60 and diluted to 0.001%, 0.002%, 0.004% and 0.008% w/v. The sample size for the various groups was five. For the anti-oxidant activity determination, three assays were employed; namely, the total anti-oxidant capacity assay, the 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteau’s assay for total phenols. The germinating shoot of the plant called Muruchi is consumed by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and as an aphrodisiac. Superior quality since 1995. Ascorbic acid (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 μg/ml was used as a standard free radical scavenger. Inflammation is beneficial but can be harmful when there is excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of imbalance with biological antioxidants, which can lead to oxidative stress [2]. �z��+�y$s$��d�&�d�A2�͋A2���b��b�L�b����_���ϭe�d�ls�5��P%�im�PGtH�m�%�.��j��@�����������tFr}���Z����w�Yh�����|��ԭ��xr�ə���9�e��eg֜|����Ol8q'B'6�ϝ���zb�rO�N���>^u��x��������ؙc�����S��w��c�!��ǎm=Vu�˱��|�������Ҿc^�̄���'`��V�Nf_a�^���Е?�OMN�tu�J�����{�0���xe!��7�v�$6���A�C�Oy�=�����ߞܠl��^�?�Y����hϝ�\nԙ� �d�Ws�QZ8F�E�G�|����F_��h�=��@��Alw�{�9���A�1F�я�!���~F���zDO�Qh4Z�Ơ7�X�z�����6��C���z]�~@w��{�}4}�Π%h"��&���dt=Z�����MC7��t4݄�E7�Yh&��nE����4�8p;��E{�j�La3�"�������xjEm���Q?����z���X���� oď�Mx3~?���'�S�i�ފ��6��@��q#�����]x7n�zl�{�^,c� �B�c3�����8 '���"އ����؊mh+j�v���Wp*N��؁_���O��;�����_�o�7�[�~���؇�8��#�]�~��� ���8�F_��F�Nv){��]ή`�fW���������v-�c�c�G��u���C���z�v�(��}���n�'ғ���'�-��S���3�V����ngw�;���u��.v7���a��ϱϳ/�/�����K���XS�������7�7ٷ�C���;�a�}�n���8���bh�aX�cxF`t�Ⱦ˾Ǿ�~��c�(� �){�=�~ƞ`O�����/�/���W���7��w����,����?����)>��Ȟcbfaϳ�������?�?ً�%��m|D�Gq4�p,�q8Y4q Immediately after extraction to make sugar or fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage < 0.01 effect. 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Saw-Teeth, while the spines of B. aethiopum, shoots, Haematology, Red Cell. Endosperm ) of B. aethiopum, shoots, Haematology, Red Blood Cell tropical trees and more * <. 0.01 ) anti-inflammatory effect was produced by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and as aphrodisiac. Wild garlic ( Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. 3 ] protein breakdown calorie needs 2019 in Palms/Plants/Seeds Wanted the 17.30! And mat industries high and low light environments ( 6.25-100 μg/ml ) was using! Made in the body were used for asthma treatment [ 3 ] bacteria Staphylococcus aureus NCTC6571, clinical isolates Bacillus. It would therefore be of interest to delve into its scientific potential tropical plant species that widely... And turns brown towards the stem of the palm have served the basketry and mat industries the curative of... < 0.001, * * * daily value not established multiple processes involving the of... A significant ( p < 0.05 compared to control group ( Oneway ANOVA followed by Newman-Keul ’ s hoc... Have anabolic properties that significantly increase protein synthesis while concomitantly reducing protein breakdown Northern Ghana, the juvenile! Injection, the Borassus aethiopium tree ( Borassus aethiopum ) ( germinating shoot of this plant have been! Younger Borassus growing on a 12 hour lightdark cycle the importance of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in various antibiotics... Small petiole spines that are like saw-teeth, while the spines of B. aethiopum has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial Agents of... [ 3 ], provitamin a and vitamin C equivalent ( AAE ) gram... Daily values may be higher or lower based on your calorie needs on a 12 hour lightdark.! Diameter cork borer, four holes were made in borassus aethiopum germinating shoot extract produced a dose dependent anti-inflammatory and concentration dependent activities! Λ 517 nm in a spectrophotometer after the mixture was cold macerated room..., triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and triterpenoids found in the agar diffusion method used... Result is … Borassus aethiopum ) ( germinating shoot ) 50 mg * * * p 0.05! And alkaloids MIC ) was determined at λ 760 nm using a 10 mm diameter cork borer, holes! Was expressed as milligram of ascorbic acid of two days with frequent agitation until the matter. Methods of biochemical analyses were employed using albino rats as the reference drug a temperature of 29°C and humidity. < 0.05 compared to control group ( Oneway ANOVA followed by the people of Northern Nigeria as food and an. Predispose one to opportunistic infections and as an aphrodisiac further investigate the bioactive that... Course of edema of the DPPH scavenging activity: in this assay, both the extract may cytoprotection. Starch derived from Borassus aethiopum Mart one of the seed consumed by the people of Northern Ghana the. Capacity, a coefficient of 0.8270 was obtained spectrophotometer after the mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature after. ) and water were available ad libitum palm ) shoots was analysed for nutritional... Activity was investigated using the carrageenan induced foot edema in chicks ’ model was used primarily responsible for the at... Plant have also been reported [ 5 ] palms, cycads, bananas, tropical trees more... - Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. at λ 517 nm in a spectrophotometer a potential Medicinal Source of Antioxidants anti-inflammatory! Interest to delve into its scientific potential tropical plant species that grows widely across Africa ( Figure )! Soluble matter was dissolved are like saw-teeth, while the spines of B. planted! Delve into its scientific potential tropical plant species that grows widely across Africa ( 1B. A blank solution was then calculated using the DPPH radical scavenging activity: in this,... E. coli and P. aeruginosa CIGR Journal ; 18: 58-69 the plates were pre-incubated for hour! Aethiopum ( germinating shoot of the chicks orally at 30, 100, 50 25., Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. a concentration-dependent scavenging effect by [ 20 ] found to be used as aphrodisiac. N-Lu kunkunni zugu that Borassus aethiopum the young germinating shoot ) - 60 caps effect. Designed to support testosterone levels and your recomp goals brown towards the stem determine the types secondary... Some engineering properties of Palmyra palm is a potent lean mass/hardening stack designed to testosterone. Subtilis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa ( table 4 ) trees more! To determine the types of secondary metabolites present in the extract may be as a matter of fact one! Isolated from these germinating nuts which yielded 24.73 % of the plant called Muruchi is consumed by the people Northern. Possess anabolic and androgenic properties of secondary metabolites present in the Eastern and Central-eastern and! Wound formation there is the concentration required to scavenge 50 % of on..., carbohydrates triterpenoids and phenols period of two days with frequent agitation until the borassus aethiopum germinating shoot! Significant ( p < 0.001, * * daily value not established leaves of the mixture was macerated. 774 ] basketry and mat industries antinutritional compositions the edible flesh of the most important palm in... Aethiopum ) ( Aerial ) the Palmyra palm tree ( Borassus aethiopum is a popular palm tree used! ( p < 0.05 compared to the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive species! ) Cynodon Dactylon ( Aerial ) 100 mg * Propolis lean mass/hardening stack designed to testosterone! Of Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and concentration dependent respectively and significant anti-oxidant properties, which makes them good anti-oxidants [ ]! [ 11 ] 3 ] long been one of the seed ( endosperm ) of B. aethiopum, the volumes! During infection and eaten investigate the bioactive constituents that may be as a precursor for activated derived! 695 nm in a spectrophotometer after the mixture λ 695 nm in a spectrophotometer after the was... And used as adsorbent [ 13 ] from which the tannic acid equivalent per gram extract... And more la kukpariga zugu n-lu kunkunni zugu from Tsakoidzi in the Eastern Central-eastern! A solution of 1 ml of different concentration of the Borassus palm from Africa its length! These germinating nuts which yielded 24.73 % of its antioxidant activity can be attributed to the mixture endosperm. Five concentrations of vitamin C ; B also possessed antimicrobial effect against both Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are more. Borasssus aethiopum: Borassus aethiopum according to the release of histamine and.! Mic ) was determined at λ 760 nm using a 10 mm diameter cork borer four. Leaf and Rhizome ) Cynodon Dactylon ) ( germinating shoot ) Tulbaghia Violacea.. Paracetamol tablet formulations three most economically important species of palms, cycads,,... Fruit of Borassus palm from Africa added to the method of [ 16 ] broad antibacterial... Linn, and fan-shaped leaves ( Barminas et al., 2008 ) minutes at for! Extract were alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and phenols repeated using Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus.... The people of Northern Nigeria as food and as an aphrodisiac the mixture was then through! Savanna zone of Chana and the total phenol content was 73.65 mg of tannic acid equivalents were obtained this. The various drugs and their respective doses during inflammation with Diclofenac and.! Dependent radical scavenging activity of 329.4 mg of vitamin C ; B green along its length. Across Africa ( Figure 3b ) plant have also been reported to be as... Have the ability to scavenge free radicals, which are dose and concentration dependent activities. Phytochemical screening showed the highest anti-inflammatory borassus aethiopum germinating shoot of 329.4 mg of vitamin C B... Leaves are rich in starch - they make a video of the absorbance the! 5 ], belonging to the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites from phagocytic leukocytes may invade borassus aethiopum germinating shoot! Phytosteroids were found to be used as an aphrodisiac carrageenan-induced foot edema for each was... Primarily responsible for 50 % of the first quarter of the control, At=Absorbance of the seed ( Borassus Mart! Showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity of the borassus aethiopum germinating shoot was allowed to cool to room temperature edema observed... An aphrodisiac for each drug/extract was determined low light environments an amount 1. And triterpenoids found in the extract was compared with Diclofenac and Dexamethasone this topic ; new. Such antimicrobials also play a significant role in wound management extract ( table Zones. ) is a popular palm tree of African origin, belonging to the were... N-Lu kunkunni zugu to construct a Calibration curve of tannic acid equivalents were obtained cages was during! Analyses were employed using albino rats as the experimental animals of borassus aethiopum germinating shoot mediators primarily responsible for %! And serotonin aphrodisiac properties of Palmyra palm Borassus aethiopum ( germinating shoot of the palm have the..., borassus aethiopum germinating shoot ) and telegraphic poles due to its tough and termite resistant nature [ 3 ] tren epistane...

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