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son preference in pakistan

Get this from a library! The first explanation is that in traditional societies such as Pakistan couples are unable to control their fertility adequately. Evidence of Son Preference and Resulting Demographic and Health Outcomes in Pakistan ... Like much of South Asia, Pakistan has a highly patriarchal society. Naima Hafeez & Climent Quintana-Domeque, 2018. 66, issue 2, 179 - 215 . De Tray D. Research in Population Economics, 01 Jan 1984, 5: 185-200 PMID: 12266412 . Conclusion: There was candid son preference among the respondents. 1995 Oct;16(2):31-40. A recently published study found that Pakistani couples express an approximately three-to-one preference for sons over daughters. Preference for a first-born boy in Western societies. This report is part of the RAND Corporation paper series. Atif K (1), Ullah MZ (2), Afsheen A (3), Naqvi SA (4), Raja ZA (5), Niazi SA (6). COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. "Son Preference and Gender-Biased Breastfeeding in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. The paper was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1948 to 2003 that captured speeches, memorials, and derivative research, usually prepared on authors' own time and meant to be the scholarly or scientific contribution of individual authors to their professional fields. The policy implications of this view suggest family planning and contraceptive distribution programs aimed at reducing the cost of achieving whatever desired family size couples want. (2016) Atif et al. Son preference encompasses not only a preference to have more sons than daughters, but also discrimination against daughters once they are born. 1984;5:185-200. The sex of surviving children is an important determinant of reproductive behaviour in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. Socioeconomic Correlates of Contraceptive Use among the Ethnic Tribal Women of Bangladesh: Does Sex Preference Matter? Behavior Res Popul Econ. Son Preference in Pakistan: An Analysis of Intentions vs. In 1990-1991 son preference ratio was 38.3% and increased in 2006-2007 to 47.5%. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2018, vol. Several fertility measures and estimation techniques were used to determine whether subsequent fertility behavior is influenced by the sex composition of previous births. Such phenomenon is present in all classes of the society and exhibits in several forms. The association is particularly strong in Nepal, India and Pakistan. RAND is nonprofit, nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. Gender preference and birth spacing in Matlab, Bangladesh. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Guru Nanak J Sociol. NIH The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. Tray, Dennis de. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Son preference is a form of gender based discrimination which is a well-recognized fact that has existed in all parts of the globe. A recently published study found that Pakistani couples express an approximately three-to-one preference for sons over daughters. The role of son preference in reproductive behaviour in Pakistan / R. Hussain, F. F. Fikree and H. W. Berendes Another explanation is that although parents indicate that they want more boys than girls, their actions do not reflect this preference because of the dominating influence of overall desires for numbers of children regardless of the sex of those children. Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. According to Dictionary Online: 'Gender Discrimination is a situation in which someone is treated less well because of their sex, usually when a woman is treated less well than a man. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Son preference in Pakistan:M Myth or reality; Full Text English. Neglect and discrimination on the basis of gender has been quite common in traditional societies. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. Son preference and daughter neglect prevails from birth [ 15 ]. Results: Parity progression is driven by son preference to some extent in all five countries studied. Abstract . A skewed sex ratio and shortage of girls is detrimental to the health and welfare of women, as well as to the human development of India. We exami The probit maximum likelihood estimation procedure is utilized, and the analysis is based on cross-sectional data on 2,910 currently married women obtained from a national survey conducted in Pakistan in 1968–1969.  |  Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review. Son preference is common in many Asian countries. No abstract provided. Was Unemployment Insurance Designed to Exclude Black Workers? The principal finding is the presence of a strong son preference both for the husband and for the wife. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. It is found that son preference is also a major factor in determining use of permanent contraceptive methods in every country apart from Afghanistan. Son Preference in Pakistan; A Myth or Reality. Son preference in Pakistan: An analysis of intentions versus behaviour (Rand paper series) Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, Autonomous Vehicles and the Future of Auto Insurance. At least 2 explanations are possible for this inconsistency between intentions and behavior with each having a different implication for population policy and for the future of population growth in general. Vaccine Nationalism Has Real Economic Consequences, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1980. https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6504.html. The principal finding is the presence of a strong son preference both for the husband and for the wife. Son Preference in Pakistan:A Myth or Reality Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. Pakistani women also seem to have exceptionally poor mental health. ... Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the . Gender discrimination can be attenuated by adequately addressing son preference at all tiers. The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. Almost 10% increase in son preference can be seen in Pakistan between 1990 until 2007. This explanation is consistent with theoretical findings. Objective: To analyze desire for sons/daughters among ladies of Peshawar, Pakistan, with a view to rule out son preference and to study impact of various demographic characteristics on the subject. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. USA.gov. Son preference in Pakistan : an analysis of intentions versus behaviour. We test the validity of their theory in Pakistan, where parents’ stated preference for sons is twice as large as in India. Do family planning programs affect fertility preferences? The Khan and Sirageldin results were extended by assessing the extent to which couples translated their very strong expressed preferences for sons into actual behavior. This finding, based on intentions, conflicts with the results based on actual behavior presented here. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. We investigate gender-biased breastfeeding in Pakistan using data from the 2006–07 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. Continuation of the fertility transition may be difficult unless the degrees of differential stopping behavior and differential contraceptive use decline. Our replication exercise strongly supports their theory: mothers breastfeed daughters significantly less (especially if there are no elder sons) to increase the chances of becoming pregnant again with the hope to conceive a son. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Our replication exercise strongly supports their theory: mothers breastfeed daughters significantly less (especially if there are no elder sons) to increase the chances of becoming pregnant again with the hope to conceive a son. Khan and Sirageldin's work on sex preference and desires for additional children in Pakistan were reviewed, followed by consideration of several methods of testing the relationship between sex of children and subsequent fertility and presentation of the results of several other tests of the hypothesis that sex composition of children affects actual fertility behavior. The Khan and Sirageldin (1977) results can be translated into a stopping rule which states that the higher the proportion of boys in a family, the less likely a couple is to go on to have another child. Son preference, fertility desire and contraceptive use in two largest cities of Pakistan. Though a growing body of literature examines the drivers and socioeconomic impacts of phenomenon in case of China and India, work on other Asian countries is scarce. Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions vs. behavior. Downloadable! Continuation of the fertility transition may be difficult unless the degrees of differential stopping behavior and differential contraceptive use decline. CONTEXT: Son preference exerts a strong influence over contraceptive and fertility decisions in many South Asian countries. Author D De Tray. PIP: In the modern era some societies may not be familiar with the concept of son preference, but in Pakistan preference for male child over female is culturally imbedded. Son preference in Pakistan: An analysis of intentions versus behaviour (Rand paper series) [De Tray, Dennis N] on Amazon.com. CONCLUSIONSThe association of son preference with parity progression and modern contraceptive use has become stronger in Pakistan. [Dennis N De Tray; Rand Corporation.]  |  De Tray, Dennis N., Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions versus behavior. Son Preference and Gender-Biased Breastfeeding in Pakistan. For example, in Pakistan, women and girls have less access to health and medical services than do their male counterparts. The results strongly suggest that Pakistani couples do not translate their stated preferences into behavior. This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan.  |  As a part of the Pakistani society, ... how others’ wants were morphed into my preference for a son is a process not unfamiliar to most of the Pakistani population. Son preference in Pakistan : an analysis of intentions versus behavior . One implication of this finding is that techniques for influencing the sex of future births can be expected to have little effect on population growth rates. This extension was based on a sample of women, most of whom have completed fertility (all were aged 35 or older) and all of whom had at least 1 live birth. 66(2), pages 179-215.Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:doi:10.1086/695137 DOI: 10.1086/695137 No overall relationship was found between the sex composition of children and subsequent fertility behavior. J Family Reprod Health. The analysis is based on two rounds of surveys conducted in 1990±91 and 1995 of a cohort of married women aged 15±49 years. The results suggest that with regard to actual behavior, Pakistani preferences for having children may dominate preferences for children of a certain type. This paper explores the extent to which couples' actual behavior is consistent with this expressed preference, and reviews a number of analytical methods for estimating the effect of sex of children on fertility behavior. Year of publication: In other words, couples may prefer boy to girl children, but they would still rather have many girl children than few or no children at all. Son preference persists and is poignantly reflected in Pakistan’s distorted child sex ratios: notably, India’s current challenge of pronounced SRB distortions was preceded by a similar skewing of the child sex ratio; the sex ratio at birth was upset only after early fetal sex detection technology became available in the 1980s (Population Council, forthcoming a). In summary, in Pakistan gender roles are exceptionally clearly defined. The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. Naima Hafeez and Climent Quintana-Domeque () . CMI WORKING PAPER SON-PREFERENCE, NUMBER O F CHILDREN, EDUCATIO N AND OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IN RURAL NEPAL WP 2012:8 2 countries where later born children of both gender benefit, see Sawada and Lokshin (2009) data on from Pakistan, and Ota and Moffatt (2007) on data from India. We test the validity of their theory in Pakistan, where parents’ stated preference for sons is twice as large as in India. NLM A statement issued today by OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and the WHO* reviews the evidence behind the causes, consequences and lessons learned regarding “son preference” or sex selection favouring boys in many parts of South, East and Central Asia, where ratios as high as 130 boys for every 100 girls have been observed. Abstract: We investigate gender-biased breastfeeding in Pakistan using data from the 2006–07 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The association of son preference with parity progression and modern contraceptive use has become stronger in Pakistan. Son preference and reproductive behaviour in rural Punjab. Without Unemployment Benefits, How Might Americans Make Ends Meet? According to Mahmood and Mahmood (1995), the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) of 1990-1991 shows that one-third of women with no children have a desire to have a son, whereas the preference for a daughter is negligible. This research has found that son preference has increased in Pakistan during 1990 to 2007. Son preference leads to discrimination against girls, which impact on different domains of their life. It is indeed a gri… PMID: 12266412 Abstract PIP: The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School. 2013 Jun;7(2):73-86. Increasing son preference and neglect of daughters is occurring in many states in India, despite the advances made in education, literacy, healthcare, and income attainment. The probit maximum likelihood estimation procedure is utilized, and the analysis is based on cross-sectional data on 2,910 currently married women obtained from a national survey conducted in Pakistan in 1968-1969. HHS This cohort study evaluates the role of the sex of children on reproductive intentions and subsequent behaviour of women in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Also available in print form. A literature review. Gender disadvantage has pervasive effects across the life course, much of it mediated through poor care and restricted opportunity. This paper explores the extent to which couples' actual behavior is consistent with this expressed preference, and reviews a number of analytical methods for estimating the effect of sex of children on fertility behavior. Actual fertility behavior versus behavior driven by son preference in Pakistan: analysis... 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